Sunday, August 4, 2013

Bigfoot and Hermaphroditism

By: Lynk Paul - Team Tracker Member

After last night’s revealing insights into the anatomy of Bigfoot (at least the one that Rick Dyer shot and killed), the biological term “Hermaphrodite” comes to mind. But how many animals have been classified in this category to date? How many mammals? Let’s look at the definition of “Hermaphrodite”.

Hermaphrodite - From Wikipedia
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes

(note: “reproductive organs” not the appearance of them)

Many taxonomic groups of animals (mostly invertebrates) do not have separate sexes. In these groups, hermaphroditism is a normal condition, enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which both partners can act as the "female" or "male". For example, the great majority of pulmonate snails, opisthobranch snails and slugs are hermaphrodites. Hermaphroditism is also found in some fish species and to a lesser degree in other vertebrates. Most plants are also hermaphrodites.
Historically, the term hermaphrodite has also been used to describe ambiguous genitalia and gonadal mosaicism in individuals of gonochoristic species, especially human beings. The word intersex has come into preferred usage for humans, since the word hermaphrodite is considered to be misleading and stigmatizing, as well as "scientifically specious and clinically problematic"

For those who are unfamiliar with the biology of hermaphroditism, here’s a quick rundown.

“The term hermaphrodite, is derived from the Latin: hermaphroditus, from Ancient Greek: ἑρμαφρόδιτος hermaphrodites which derives from Hermaphroditos, the son of Hermes and Aphrodite in Greek mythology. According to Ovid, he fused with a nymph, Salmacis, resulting in one individual possessing physical trait of both sexes. Although according to Diodorus, who mentions at an earlier period, he was born with a physical body combining both sexes.The word hermaphrodite entered the English lexicon in the late 14th century. - From Wikipedia

Here are some of the categories of hermaphroditism as classified in Zoology:

Sequential hermaphrodites

This occurs in species where an individual is born as one sex, but can later change into the opposite sex. This is different to simultaneous hermaphrodites, in which an individual may possess “fully functional” male and female gonads. (Again, fully functional male and female genitalia and reproductive organs as opposed to the appearance of them) 

Sequential hermaphroditism occurs in fish like the teleost fish; some jellyfish and many gastropods (eg: common slipper shell), also in some flowering plants. Some sequential hermaphrodites can change sex multiple times but most of them can only change sex once. Behavioral ecology and the evolutionary life history theory are believed to be the driving force behind these changes. Michael T. Ghiselin, in the size-advantage mode, proposed that, “if an individual of a certain sex could significantly increase its reproductive success after reaching a certain size, it would be to their advantage to switch to that sex.”

Sequential hermaphrodites can be divided into the following three broad categories:

·         Protandry: This is where an organism is born as a male, and then changes its sex to a female.
·         Protogyny: This is where the organism is born as a female, and then changes its sex to a male.
·         Bidirectional Sex Changers: This is where an organism has both female and male gonads, but act as either female or male during different stages in life.

Simultaneous hermaphrodites

A simultaneous (or synchronous) hermaphrodite (or homogamous) is an adult organism that has both male and female sexual organs at the same time. Usually, self-fertilization does not occur. Like with earthworms and slugs.

Pseudohermaphroditism - From Wikipedia
Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism,, is the condition in which an organism is born with secondary sex characteristics or a phenotype that is different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis).

In some cases, the external sex organs look intermediate between the typical clitoris or penis. In other cases, the external sex organs have an appearance that does not look intermediate, but rather has the appearance that would be expected to be seen with the "opposite" gonadal tissue. Because of this, pseudohermaphroditism is sometimes not identified until puberty. It is possible for the condition to be undetected until adulthood. 

The term "male pseudohermaphrodite" is used when a testis is present, and the term "female pseudohermaphrodite" is used when an ovary is present. The term "true" hermaphrodite is reserved for the very rare cases where both ovarian and testicular tissue is present. (Whether or not that term would be appropriate when ovotestes are found, or only when distinct ovaries and testes are found, is not well defined.)
Associated conditions in males include 5-α-reductase deficiency from a deficiency in the male chromosome (46 XY)

This is where it get’s interesting:

When spotted hyenas were first discovered by explorers, they were thought to be hermaphrodites. Early observations of spotted hyenas in the wild led researchers to believe that all spotted hyenas, male and female, were born with what appeared to be a penis. The apparent penis in females is in fact an enlarged clitoris, which contains an external birth canal. It can be difficult to determine the sex of wild spotted hyenas until sexual maturity, when they may become pregnant. When a female spotted hyena gives birth, they pass the cub through the cervix internally, but then pass it out through the elongated clitoris.



Aside from having an ambiguous-looking external genitalia, true hermaphroditism in humans differs from pseudohermaphroditism in which the person's karyotype has both XX and XY chromosome pairs (47XXY, 46XX/46XY, 46XX/47XXY or 45X/XY mosaic) and having both testicular and ovarian tissue. One possible pathophysiologic explanation of this rare phenomenon is a parthenogenetic division of a haploid ovum into two haploid ova. Upon fertilization of the two ova by two sperm cells (one carrying an X and the other carrying a Y chromosome), the two fertilized ova are then fused together resulting in a person having dual genitalial, gonadal (ovotestes) and genetic sex.

Another common cause of hermaphroditism is the crossing over of the SRY from the Y chromosome to the X chromosome during meiosis. The SRY is then activated in only certain areas, causing development of testes in some areas by beginning a series of events starting with the upregulation of SOX9, and in other areas not being active (causing the growth of ovarian tissues). Thus, testicular and ovarian tissues will both be present in the same individual.

However, genetic imperfections, does not give validity to natural hermaphroditism in mammalian species in direct contrast to natural sexual dimorphism which is more common. Darwin’s theory of evolution comes to mind. Aren’t we supposed to be evolved from these “alleged pre-humans”?  With the release of mind blowing information by Rick Dyer that Bigfoot has both male and female genitalia; which was visible and observed during initial examination of the dead Bigfoot body; which is in the custody of Dyer’s investors and their team of scientists; this puts them so far in the category of hermaphroditism generally.

We will have to wait for further scientific data to be released about this being, which specifies the exact nature and reason behind these findings. Is it genetic imperfection; is it Simultaneous hermaphroditsm”; “Sequential/ Bidirectional hermaphroditism”; do individuals possess “fully functional” male and female gonads (reproductive organs), enabling a form of sexual reproduction in which both partners can act as the "female" or "male" interchangeably?

There are so many questions to be asked and answered. But for now, we should not speculate, alas we are on the doorstep of TRUTH and DISCOVERY. Shocked and in awe of what we learned yesterday, think of what will we learn tomorrow.